[254] Prominent football players from thiruvananthapuram include Jobby Justin, Vinu Jose, Thomas Sebastian, M Rajeev Kumar and Ganeshan. Other important beaches include Poovar, Shankumugham Beach, Azhimala Beach, Vizhinjam Beach and Veli Beach. He also established the first film studio of Kerala, the Travancore National Pictures at Thiruvananthapuram in 1926. Malabar and South Kanara districts were part of British India's Madras Presidency. [230], All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs Medium wave and Shortwave radio stations in the city. [85] As of the 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, the LDF has a majority in the state assembly seats (91/140). [23] Together with the Cholas and Pandyas the Cheras formed the Tamil triumvirate of the mūvēntar (Three Crowned Kings). B. Eerdmans Publishing - 2008, Page 285. [146][147] Germany's Goethe Zentrum, France's Alliance Française and Russia's Gorky Bhavan centres host a wide range of events and programmes throughout the year. The sewerage is pumped to a stilling chamber at the Sewerage Treatment Plant (STP) at Valiyathura, and is disposed through sewage farming. The Government Law College, formed in 1875, is one of the oldest legal education institutions in India. [13] In the 17th century the king Marthanda Varma expanded the territory and founded the princely state of Travancore and made Thiruvananthapuram its capital. [260], Jimmy George Indoor Stadium is a major indoor stadium in the state. [188] The schools are affiliated with The State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT), Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) and National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). [139] Other architectural landmarks include Kuthira Malika Palace, Kowdiar Palace, Attukal temple, Beemapally Mosque, Connemara Market, and the Mateer Memorial Church. [257] The Trivandrum Marathon is a marathon organised by the Trivandrum runners club every year. [15], Thiruvananthapuram is a notable academic and research hub and home to the University of Kerala, Kerala Technological University, the regional headquarters of Indira Gandhi National Open University, and many other schools and colleges. Kolattunadu The term Kerala was first epigraphically recorded as Ketalaputo (Cheras) in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription by emperor Ashoka of Magadha. Veluthat, Kesavan. [178] Being one of the gateways to the state, it has direct connectivity to all the major cities in India as well as the Middle East, Malaysia, Singapore, the Maldives and Sri Lanka. Kerala is known for traditional arts and people enjoy traditional, percussion-filled music. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Kerala Police Wiki, Facts. [2] The encompassing urban agglomeration population is around 1.68 million. After the Dutch were defeated by Travancore king Marthanda Varma, the British crown gained control over Kerala by allying with the newly created princely state of Travancore until India was declared independent in 1947. The city receives heavy rainfall of around 1,827 millimetres (71.9 in) per year. [105][106], Tourism is a significant economic sector. Thiruvananthapuram's economy comprises Information Technology, education, plantations, aerospace, commerce and tourism. Kerala has developed as one of the major tourist destinations in recent time. Please provide some background as to the politics of the State of Kerala, particularly clashes between the CPIM and INC or DIC or their student arms. [79] In 1957, elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly were held, and a reformist, Communist-led government came to power, under E. M. S. [176] Other railway stations in the city are Thiruvananthapuram Pettah, Nemom railway station, Veli railway station and Kazhakoottam railway station. Kerala is located on the southwestern tip of India with the Arabian Sea on the west and the Western Ghats towering 500-2700m on the east. [70] The corporation secretary is an officer appointed by the government, who serves as the administrative head of the TMC and implements the council's decisions based on the resolutions adopted by the council. Thiruvananthapuram is also known in the literature, and popular reference as Ananthapuri derived from the Sanskrit word Syanandurapuram, meaning "The City of Bliss" in Carnatic kirtanas composed by Swathi Thirunal, erstwhile Maharaja of Travancore. European trading interests of the Dutch, French and the British East India companies took centre stage during the colonial wars in India. [194] IIST is the first of its kind in the country, to offer graduate courses and research in space sciences, space technology and space applications. The government controlled the police, which made 150,000 arrests (often the same people arrested time and again), and used 248 lathi charges to beat back the demonstrators, killing twenty. Namboodiripad. The weakened Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Company, who took advantage of continuing conflicts between Kozhikode and Kochi to gain control of the trade. The opposition called on Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to seize control of the state government. The main bus stations in the city are the Central Bus Station in Thampanoor, where most of the long-distance buses ply from, and city bus station in East Fort, where most city buses ply from. The Literacy Rate In Kerala Is Almost 100% The fact proves that Kerala has the highest literacy rates … [77] In 1757, to check the invasion of the Zamorin of Calicut, the Palakkad Raja sought the help of Hyder Ali of Mysore. Anamudi or Anai Mudi is the highest peak of Kerala with an altitude of 2,695 m. It is also the highest peak of Western Ghats. Thiruvananthapuram has two parliamentary constituencies—Attingal and Thiruvananthapuram—and elects five Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature. [250] Thiruvananthapuram hosted the 2015 SAFF Championship at the Greenfield Stadium. Kerala has an area of 38,862 Km and divided into 14 major districts, which have got its unique culture and traditions. [36][37] A branch of the Ay family, which had controlled the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, merged with the Kingdom of Venad in the 12th century. In 1741, Mahé de La Bourdonnais retook the town after a period of occupation by the Marathas. [255] Thiruvananthapuram was one of the main venues for the 2015 National Games of India. The municipality was converted into a corporation on 30 October 1940, during the period of Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma, who took over in 1931. Thiruvananthapuram also houses a large army cantonment in Pangode which houses some regiments of the Indian Army. CPM is the part of the uprising of Naxalbari movement in Bengal which leads to the formation of CPI(ML) in India. The Cheras were mentioned as Ketalaputo (Keralaputra) on an inscribed edict of emperor Ashoka of the Magadha Empire in the 3rd century BCE,[2] as Cerobothra by the Greek Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and as Celebothras in the Roman encyclopedia Natural History by Pliny the Elder. Please provide background or any detail on RSS attacks on Christians particularly in Chitoor, Kerala", https://doi.org/10.1080/14631369.2019.1601005, Kerala Modernity: Ideas, Spaces and Practices in Transition, Malabar on the Columbia University, New York website, About the Dutch colonial presence in Kerala, Nediyiruppu Swaroopam (Kingdom of Calicut), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Kerala&oldid=998617054, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Abraham, Renu Elizabeth. In 1498, Vasco Da Gama established a sea route to Kerala and raised Portuguese settlements, which marked the beginning of the colonial era of Kerala. As in other parts of ancient India, Buddhism and Jainism co-existed with early Hindu beliefs during the first five centuries. Chillies, curry leaves, coconut, mustard seeds, turmeric, tamarind, and asafoetida are all frequently used. [262], Basketball tournaments are usually conducted by the schools in the city. ", Government of Kerala Website on Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation, Thiruvananthapuram Central railway station, Thiruvananthapuram Pettah railway station, Mannam Memorial Residential Higher Secondary School, Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute (TBGRI), Thiruvananthapuram City Police Mobile App (iSafe), Nediyiruppu Swaroopam (Kingdom of Calicut), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thiruvananthapuram&oldid=999212421, Cities and towns in Thiruvananthapuram district, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source 2: Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010), This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 01:21. Geographically, Kerala roughly … The city has facilities to host most type of sports. [12], Archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area. [107][108][109] The presence of natural attractions like beaches, backwaters, hills, and plantations and attractions like heritage, history, Ayurveda, medical tourism and knowledge centres attract many tourists. [42], Much of history of the region from the 6th to the 8th century is obscure. Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist hub in India. [123][124] Annual literature festivals like the Kovalam Literary Festival, are held in the city. Malayalam (/malayALam/) is the main language of the South Indian state of Kerala and also of the Lakshadweep Islands (Laccadives) of the west coast of India. "Documents of Investiture Ceremonies" in K. K. N. Kurup, Edit., "India's Naval Traditions". Gamliel, Ophira. Kerala has 44 rivers out of which 41 flows westwards while remaining 3 flows to east. [212], The premier research institutes in Thiruvananthapuram includes, Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Kerala (IIITMK),[213] National Institute of Speech and Hearing (NISH),[214] Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology,[215] Centre for Development of Imaging Technology (C-Dit),[216] Centre for Development Studies (CDS),[217] Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute,[218] National Centre for Earth Science Studies (NCESS),[219] Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)[220] and Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library. [127] Thiruvananthapuram has been a hub of classical music since the days of Maharaja of Travancore, Swathi Thirunal. [81] In addition to this, three units of the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) and Sector Headquarters (SHQ) of the Border Security Force (BSF) are also present. People inhibited Kerala from 10,000 BCE. [264] Surfing is also a popular sport in the beaches. Along with Sikkim, it tops the list of the cleanest states … The first popularly elected ministry, headed by Pattom Thanu Pillai, was installed in office on 24 March 1948. The Treaty of Mavelikkara was signed by the Dutch and Travancore in 1753, according to which the Dutch were compelled to detach from all political involvements in the region. The studies point to the indigenous development of the ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic age, and its continuity through Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic ages. In 1949, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Thiru-Kochi, the state formed by the integration of Travancore with its northern neighbour, the Kochi. [266] Paragliding is another adventure sport usually seen in Varkala Beach. Abdur Razzak (1442–43), Niccolò de' Conti (1445), Afanasy Nikitin (1468–74), Ludovico di Varthema (1503–1508), and Duarte Barbosa witnessed the city as one of the major trading centres in the Indian subcontinent where traders from different parts of the world could be seen. With its lush green beauty, beaches , culture and rich history Kerala is coined as God’s Own Country. Kerala, southwestern coastal state of India. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Samoothiri and finally led to conflict. [230] All major Malayalam channels, including Asianet, Janam TV, Jeevan TV, MediaOne TV and Manorama News have production facilities or offices in the city. [3] From the time of Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century CE) itself, the Arab sailors used to call Kerala as Male. [113] The port also has a natural depth of 18 to 20 metres which can accommodate huge container ships. [1] From the Kodungallur line of the Cheras rose the Kulasekhara dynasty, which was established by Kulasekhara Varman. [53][54][55] His activities in Kerala was little and no evidence of his influence is noticed in the literature or other things in his lifetime in Kerala. Several establishments of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) were later established in Thiruvananthapuram. Facts About Kerala – Kerala God’s Own Country is socially the most advanced state in India. It is … [173], Thiruvananthapuram is a divisional headquarters in the Southern Railway zone of the Indian Railways. [29][30] The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces. Bio / wiki sources: Wikipedia, accounts on social media, content from our users. A speaker of Malayalam is called a Malayali. [citation needed] The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala by name as Cherapadah is the Aitareya Aranyaka, a late Vedic work on philosophy. [209] Major fine arts colleges are Swathi Thirunal College of Music, which is the first music academy in Kerala[210] and College of Fine Arts Trivandrum. [2] Kerala was alternatively called Kerala as well as Malabar. This era saw the establishment of the first English school (1834), the Observatory (1837), the General Hospital (1839), the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library and the University College (1873). [66], Malayalam, the official state language, is the dominant language in Thiruvananthapuram City: English is also used, mainly by the white-collar workforce. Shankara represented his works as elaborating on ideas found in the Upanishads, and he wrote copious commentaries on the Vedic canon (Brahma Sutra, principal upanishads and Bhagavad Gita) in support of his thesis. Kerala Style Fish Molee. It is a small state, constituting only about 1 percent of the total area of the country. The functions of the Municipal Corporation are managed by seven departments—engineering, health, general administration, council, accounts and revenue. [71] For the decentralised role of TMC, eleven Zonal Offices are created. Tamil has the most speakers after Malayalam. The zonal offices are in Fort, Kadakampally, Nemom, Ulloor, Attipra, Thiruvallom, Kazhakkuttom, Sreekaryam, Kudappanakunnu, Vattiyoorkavu and Vizhinjam. [224] College of Engineering Trivandrum is also ranked fourth in India and first in Kerala in architecture institution rankings. [177], Thiruvananthapuram is served by the Thiruvananthapuram International Airport, located at Chakai, only 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) from the city centre. [198] Other notable medical schools apart from SCTIMST (which provides super-specialty courses in cardiac and neuroscience) and Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (which provides PG courses in radiotherapy and pathology, and super-specialty courses) includes SUT Academy of Medical Sciences, Sree Gokulam Medical College and Government Ayurveda College. [9] These findings have been classified into Laterite rock-cut caves (Chenkallara), Hood stones (Kudakkallu), Hat stones (Toppikallu), Dolmenoid cists (Kalvrtham), Urn burials (Nannangadi) and Menhirs (Pulachikallu). [261] The major sports training and coaching institutions include the Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education (LNCPE), TOSS Academy and the Tenvic Sports Coaching Academy at the Sports Hub. Much more controversial was an effort to impose state control on private schools, such as those run by the Christians and the NSS, which enrolled 40% of the students. The Cheras ruled the western Malabar Coast, the Cholas ruled in the eastern Coromandel Coast and the Pandyas in the south-central peninsula. In 1766, Haider Ali of Mysore defeated the Samoothiri of Kozhikode – an East India Company ally at the time – and absorbed Kozhikode to his state.[78]. [92] Electricity is supplied by the Kerala State Electricity Board. [55], The Thiruvananthapuram Corporation is spread over 214.86 km2 (82.96 sq mi). It proclaims that Parasurama, an Avatar of Mahavishnu, threw His battle axe into the sea. In 1783, the British agreed to restore to the French their settlements in India, and Mahé, India was handed over to the French in 1785. [96] State- and central-government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. [165] It was one of the 12 Public-private partnership project case studies from across the world which fulfil the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN Agenda 2030. 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