No one has completed this journey since. When determining whether to take part in the Vietnam War on a grand scale, US leaders and political advisers felt they could quickly take over the conflict and control Vietnam. Historical records suggest that humankind have explored the northern extremes since 325 BC, when the ancient Greek sailor Pytheas reached a frozen sea while attempting to find a source of the metal tin. The Americans relied on massive firepower and air superiority. On August 3, 1958, the American submarine USS Nautilus (SSN-571) reached the North Pole without surfacing. The First Indochina War broke out between the communist North and the French-backed resistance in the South. They developed pasture land and farms on the western Greenland coast. Explore the long history of exploration of the Arctic – from 330 BC to the present. The progress of the Vietnam War was documented and compiled in a file known as the Pentagon Papers. Crary.[20]. On a 1596 expedition, he and his crew became the first western Europeans to survive a winter in the high Arctic after their ship became trapped in sea ice on the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. Exploring and discovering uncharted territories is always an exciting concept. Historians even called this highly sought-after passage the “Arctic Grail” and characterized … [17], On May 9, 1926, Americans Richard E. Byrd and Floyd Bennett claimed to have flown over the North Pole in a Fokker F.VIIa/3m Tri-motor monoplane. The motive was trade with the Far East. Russian settlers and traders on the coasts of the White Sea, the Pomors, had been exploring parts of the northeast passage as early as the 11th century. His position was verified independently by a US Air Force meteorological overflight. The Healy seamount is a stunning find that rises more than 3000 meters off the ocean floor. In 1992, Bancroft visited the South Pole for the first time, becoming the first woman in history to travel to both Poles. Expert author, Tony Soper, uncovers the history of the pioneers of Arctic exploration. His first journey to Antarctica in the 1800s was made possible thanks to his service as a British Royal Navy officer. [citation needed] Most notable is the 1596 expedition led by Dutch navigator Willem Barentsz who discovered Spitsbergen and Bear Island. Europeans began exploring the Arctic in the Elizabethan era when English seamen sought a shortcut to Asia by the seas north of America — the so-called Northwest Passage. The period of Arctic exploration covers almost 2500 years, starting with the Greek, Pytheas of Massalia (Marseilles) in 320 B.C. The debate over opening ANWR to drilling gained headway nationally in 1980, when President Jimmy Carter set aside less than eight percent of the refuge for potential oil and gas development. Pictures; Andrey Golovnev, Professor from Ural Federal University, prepared a report for the International Northern Archaeological Congress. [1] Sailing past the Pillars of Hercules, he reached Brittany and then Cornwall, eventually circumnavigating the British Isles. It then proceeded to travel under the entire Polar ice cap. On March 17, 1959, the USS Skate (SSN-578) surfaced on the North Pole and dispersed the ashes of explorer Sir Hubert Wilkins. American Frederick Cook claimed to have reached the North Pole in 1908, but this has not been widely accepted. Humans have been exploring the North American Arctic for centuries, beginning about 5,000 years ago when Palaeoeskimos were looking for a homeland, followed by the Thule — ancestors of the Inuit.European exploration of the same region began with the Norse in the 10th century and, after a short pause, was continued by Englishmen during the Elizabethan era (1558–1603). The storied history of Arctic exploration isn’t over. [citation needed] The Inventio Fortunata, a lost book, describes in a summary written by Jacobus Cnoyen but only found in a letter from Gerardus Mercator, voyages as far as the North Pole. His report spurred Erik the Red, an outlawed chieftain, to establish a settlement there in 985. Ann Bancroft is pretty modern in terms of Arctic exploration, and one of the few female explorers to venture there. They then founded the settlement of Mangazeya east of the Yamal Peninsula in the early 16th century. [1][16] He traveled with the aid of dogsleds and three separate support crews who turned back at successive intervals before reaching the Pole. The Vietnam War lasted from 1955 to 1975. Unfortunately, his writings have been lost and there is much speculation as to whether Pytheas voyaged to Iceland, the Shetlands, or possibly northern Norway. John Cabot's initial failure in 1497 to find a Northwest Passage across the Atlantic led the British to seek an alternative route to the east. Sir Robert McClure was credited with the discovery of the Northwest Passage by sea in 1851 when he looked across M'Clure Strait from Banks Island and viewed Melville Island. [2] Navigators were better able to chart their positions, and the European race to China, sparked by interest in the writings of Marco Polo, commenced. Documenting more than 2500 years of Arctic exploration, from the earliest seafarers of antiquity and the great naval and mercantile voyages in search of the Northwest and Northeast Passages, to the conquest of the North Pole and even beyond, A History of Arctic Exploration is the definitive account of expeditions made throughout the great Northern polar expanse. [1] Dangerous oceans and poor weather conditions often fetter explorers attempting to reach polar regions and journeying through these perils by sight, boat, and foot has proven difficult. An illustrated history of Arctic oil exploration. The Pechenga Monastery on the north of Kola Peninsula was founded by Russian monks in 1533; from their base at Kola, the Pomors explored the Barents Region, Spitsbergen, and Novaya Zemlya—all of which are in the Arctic Circle. Although they won almost all the major military encounters with their enemies, they still lost the war on a political and social level. Some years later, Steven Borough, the master of Chancellor's ship, made it as far as the Kara Sea, when he was forced to turn back because of icy conditions.[7]. Eastern Australia was not officially claimed for Britain by Capt. His three years in the expedition only made him more curious about Antarctic exploration and for nearly 20 years he kept venturing into the Poles, recording anything he possibly could from these parts of the world. The story of Arctic exploration involves many nations and peoples -- and of course, like other lands in what Europeans called the "New" world, large areas of the Arctic were already inhabited by peoples such as the Sami of Lapland, and the Yupik, Inupiat, and Inuit of North America. However, in the harsh environment, they were not self-sufficient and required supplies, which were transported from Norway and Iceland across the sea. [citation needed] Not all the settlers were successful however in the attempts to reach the island. Although these expeditions failed, new coasts and islands were discovered. She’s also used her skills and knowledge to draw attention to important environmental issues such as global warming and the basic human right of having clean water. From 1576 to 1578, he took three trips to what is now the Canadian Arctic in order to find the passage. Western parts of the passage were simultaneously being explored by Northern European countries like England, the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway, looking for an alternative seaway to China and India. On 2 August 2007, during Arktika 2007 Russian manned submersibles were the first to descend to the sea-bed below the pole. In 1969 Wally Herbert, on foot and by dog sled, became the first man to reach the North Pole on muscle power alone, on the 60th anniversary of Robert Peary's famous but disputed expedition. [8] Eighty years after Dezhnev, in 1728, another Russian explorer, Danish-born Vitus Bering on Sviatoy Gavriil made a similar voyage in reverse, starting in Kamchatka and going north to the passage that now bears his name (Bering Strait). Since the discovery of the American continent was the product of the search for a route to Asia, exploration around the northern edge of North America continued for the Northwest Passage. 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