Cited from The Septuagint vs. the Masoretic Text by Fr. The Septuagint versus the Masoretic The English version of the Septuagint text, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton compared to the English version of the Masoretic text in the King James translation The Septuagint, the translation of the seventy, was an official document. According to the relevant research the excessive text of the MT version is due to additions of several stereotypical and conventional expressions, finally damaging the original form of the prophecies that is full of meaning and superbly measured. The earliest Septuagint manuscripts are from the 2nd century BC. by Gabe Martini, "Masoretic Text vs. The books of Scripture found in the Septuagint, but not found in the Masoretic Text, are commonly called either the Deuterocanon or the anagignoskomena. I've gained interest in the Septuagint/LXX translation of the Old Testament ever since I read quite a few Orthodox sources say that it's "the Orthodox Old Testament", and such arguments as "Christ and the Apostles used the LXX, so we should too". We have written in a previous article (“The Neutralization of the Netherworld”) that the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament represents an ancient and authentic Hebrew tradition. 2: And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. The Masoretic text is a text that has not been preserved by the Church, and so while it is worthy of study and comparison, it is not equally trustworthy. Your leaders lead you astray, and the way of your paths they have destroyed. Here you can leave your comment on the present article, not exceeding 4000 characters. That is why twice in the Old Testament they were instructed not … dead sea scrolls and septuagint vs masoretic text . Compare the above with the Latin Vulgate: But you carried a tabernacle for your Moloch, and the image of your idols, the star of your god, which you made to yourselves (Douay-Rheims translation of the Vulgate). Registered User. (Read Part 1 First!) LXX Septuagint, for the “70” (72) translators mss Greek ms of New Testament in cursive letters. The End Time WAR on our Gospel and the clear message to this Generation . 1: In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Septuagint Brenton Translation 12 O my people, your exactors strip you, and extortioners rule over you: O my people, they that pronounce you blessed lead you astray, and pervert the path of your feet. ...the basis of the Old Testament text in the Orthodox tradition is the Septuagint, a Greek translation by the "seventy interpreters" made in the third to second centuries BCE for the Alexandrian Hebrews and the Jewish diaspora. The earliest copies we have of the MT only Date from about 900 or 1000 AD, but the LXX goes … There never was one textus recepticus, but the consensus within the Jewish community was entirely in favour of the Septuagint until it became clear that many of its readings pointed too clearly to Christ. Does the Orthodox Church teach that the Septuagint is more reliable than the Hebrew text of the Old Testament? It is almost one thousand years newer than the Septuagint. Furthermore, it is clear that the text that Christ and the Apostles used most closely matches the Septuagint rather than the Masoretic text. Test case for accuracy of LXX vs. Masoretic: Shem as Melchizedek. The Septuagint (for example in the Alexandrinus or Vaticanus texts) is older than the Masoretic. Is the Septuagint a Divinely Inspired Translation. The Septuagint versus the Masoretic The English version of the Septuagint text, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton compared to the English version of the Masoretic text in the King James translation Test case for accuracy of LXX vs. Masoretic: Shem as Melchizedek. Post May 15, 2013 #1 2013-05-15T23:08. is it true that the dead sea scrolls agrees in many places with the septuagint, not with masoretic text? The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. What you can do, and what will be more helpful anyway, is when you are studying a particular passage in the Old Testament, look at the Masoretic, the DSS and the Septuagint and take every case one at a time. The Masoretic text is a text that has not been preserved by the Church, and so while it is worthy of study and comparison, it is not equally trustworthy. …with His stripes, we were healed (Isaiah 53:5), when from the perspective of the prophet, he was speaking of something in the future. The Septuagint, the Masoretic Text, & Matthew 1 Exploring Jeremy Sexton’s and Henry Smith’s Rabbinic Forgeries Hypothesis How many of you are familiar with the claim that Jewish Rabbinic scholars forged Biblical history to obfuscate the identity of Yeshua (Jesus) as the Bible’s Messiah? Church Holy Days. It is an example of the Masoretic recension, which is usually dated to have been shaped between the 6th and 10th centuries A.D. by Fr. "The preference for the Septuagint in the Orthodox Church cannot be said to be on account of the poor state of the Masoretic text or that the Septuagint is always or even the majority of the time an earlier or more original text. The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. The rabbis who compiled the Masoretic text were not accountable to the High Priest in Jerusalem. Since the Masoretic differs significantly from the Septuagint, and since Jesus and the apostles treated the Septuagint as inspired, I believe the Masoretic differences are indeed errors. This is obvious because of the reference to the Urim and Thummim, which were two objects used by the priest of the Old Testament for discerning the will of God on matters such as that described in 1 Samuel 14. John Whiteford talks about the "Bible according to the Seventy". The three are the Hebrew Masoretic Text, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and the Septuagint. That the Septuagint is the most authoritative text in the Orthodox Church is something that is confirmed in just about any Orthodox catechetical text you could consult. The Septuagint Preserved Something The Masoretic Text Lost! The Septuagint is based upon Hebrew texts at least twelve centuries older than the texts upon which the Masoretic version is based. I have weighed the value of both the Septuagint (LXX) and the Masoretic Text (MT) and have found not only the scholarly work and veracity of the MT to stand the test but also the archaeological evidence to verify the dating in the MT. And in the above quote, I think there may be a translation problem, though I don't have the Russian text, and my Russian would probably be too limited to tell for sure by myself -- but when it says "some of the citations taken from the Old Testament and found in the New mainly use the Septuagint text," it is awkwardly worded enough for me to guess that Metropolitan Hilarion meant to say that most (not just "some") of the quotes of the Old Testament in the New Testament are based on the Septuagint... because as a matter of fact, that is true. As for why the Septuagint is good, one reason that this translation is helpful is that it is a translation from Hebrew made in about 250 BC. Yet, modern Christian translations of the Old Testament rely on the Masoretic Text, not the Septuagint. Scholars have been discussing this issue for millennia, but one aspect of this debate has garnered considerable attention in our circles recently: the Masoretic (MT) vs. Septuagint (LXX) debate. The Septuagint is one of the most important assets that textual criticism has today. "Is the Septuagint a Divinely Inspired Translation?" Validity of LXX. In any case, the Hebrew Text that we now have was preserved outside the Church. the Septuagint is far more accurate as well. The Septuagint version of Jeremiah is about 1/8 (about 2700 words) shorter than the Masoretic. In the early 20th century, the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in caves near Qumran. The earliest Masoretic manuscripts are from the 9th or 10th centuries AD. Particularly when the Septuagint and the Hebrew text are in agreement, we will better understand the Septuagint as a translation if we compare it with the Hebrew text that it is clearly a translation of. According to Christian tradition, the non-Christian Jews began making changes in the Old Testament text to undercut the Christian use of Old Testament prophecies concerning the coming of Christ. And what it corrects in the Masoretic Text demonstrates that the MT was altered by anti-Christian rabbis in the first and second centuries A.D. These are principle examples of why the Septuagint Old Testament is the ‘official’ Old Testament of the Orthodox Church (that and the fact that the Masoretic text didn’t even exist until 1,000 a.d.). It should be pointed out that the Hebrew text … Perhaps that is why Jesus and the apostles frequently quoted from the Septuagint… Asceties of Piety. While it is outside the scope of this article to perform an in-depth study of the canon of Scripture, a few points relevant to the Masoretic Text should be made here: However, since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, we now know that the Early Age of Kings (Solomon to the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and the Babylonian captivity). The Septuagint vs the Masoretic Text? But then there's the Septuagint claiming that it predates the Masoretic Text by almost a thousand years, and that its translation of Hebrew to Greek was permitted by the Sanhedrin. Several modern translations correct this clearly erroneous text based on the Septuagint and Vulgate to read: Therefore Saul said, "O LORD God of Israel, why have you not answered your servant this day? There’s a 1500 year difference between the two timelines. 2) is that true christians evangelist from nt quoted the greek version using Virgin in matthew 7:14 Fr. It should be pointed out that the Hebrew text should not be ignored entirely. Fr. That is why twice in the Old Testament they were instructed not … Here are a few instances I am aware of where it does not: Here are some I am aware of that favor the Masoretic reading. The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. John Whiteford. “[The Septuagint] was translated from Hebrew over several centuries, and the translations began to be revised shortly after they were completed. © 1999-2018 OrthoChristian.comWhen reposting our material a link to OrthoChristian.com is required. We have the promise that the Holy Spirit will guide us into all Truth (John 16:13), and so can indeed affirm that Where alternate readings existed, the Masoretic text incorporated the one which supported the Talmudic tradition, which was developing in parallel with the establishment of the Masoretic canon. If we are to say that the Bible has been inspired, we need to know what it contains. According to the relevant research the excessive text of the MT version is due to additions of several stereotypical and conventional expressions, finally damaging the original form of the prophecies that is full of meaning and superbly measured. And what it corrects in the Masoretic Text demonstrates that the MT was altered by anti-Christian rabbis in the first and second centuries A.D. . In Romans 3:1 & 2, God’s word tells us that the Jews were committed to the oracles of God. Anyone considering the Septuagint as reliable is deluding himself (or herself). While the Masoretic Text is still widely embraced today, it’s had its share of controversy, too. Third, the Septuagint was used by both the Greek Fathers of the Church, and Orthodox liturgical services (in other words, this text became part of the Orthodox church Tradition). Textual preservation is a critical issue for the Bible believer. a. Jews today believe that Shem is Melchizedek because the Masoretic chronology has Shem living down past the birth of Jacob. Because the LXX is supposedly 1,100 plus years older and as it reads very different from the oldest extant Hebrew manuscripts, text critics presume that the LXX was translated from an older more reliable Hebrew text. b. It can provide invaluable help to Orthodox Christians in understanding their Faith more deeply, and in defending and giving an account of it when confronted with heterodox — especially Protestant — claims. Taking into account the three factors enumerated above, St. Philaret of Moscow considers it possible to maintain that "in the Orthodox teaching of Holy Scripture it is necessary to attribute a dogmatic merit to the Translation of the Seventy, in some cases placing it on equal level with the original and even elevating it above the Hebrew text, as is generally accepted in the most recent editions (Orthodox Christianity, Volume II: Doctrine and Teaching of the Orthodox Church, (New York: St. Vladimir Seminary Press, 2012) p. 34). b. Designed by John A. Peck, The Online Orthodox Christian Homiletics Resource, Sinners in the Hand of a 'Less Angry' God, A Pagan Records the Slaughter of the Innocents by Herod, The Apostle John and the First Letter of Clement to the Corinthians, Nothing Strikes Fear in the Person Whose Hope is in God, Marriage Perfection to Rival the Holiest of Monks, The Compilers of the Philokalia Answer the Opponents of Frequent Communion, The “Smoking Gun” of Non-Chalcedonian Christianity, Salvation of Christians Outside the Orthodox Church, Augustine: Infant Baptism Is The Apostolic And Universal Practice Of The Church, Calvin Knew Infant Baptism Was Apostolic in Origin. The Masoretic text and the Septuagint both link all the key male players, but the Septuagint gives longer time frames for many of them. In Romans 3:1 & 2, God’s word tells us that the Jews were committed to the oracles of God. The Hebrew Masoretic Text and the Greek Septuagint. The Masoretic text is a text that has not been preserved by the Church, and so while it is worthy of study and comparison, it is not equally trustworthy. the Masoretic Text, I'm personally pro-Septuagint but also pro-ancient Hebrew texts (which the MT is clearly not), which typically agree with the Septuagint anyway. But if this guilt is in your people Israel, give Thummim." That the Septuagint is the most authoritative text in the Orthodox Church is something that is confirmed in just about any Orthodox catechetical text you could consult. For example, in Acts 7:43, the Protomartyr Stephen quotes from the book of Amos as follows: Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, figures which ye made to worship them (Acts 7:43 KJV). If so, why? One often encounters the use of the “prophetic perfect”, where a prophecy of something that has not yet come to pass is in the perfect tense, and so is often translated with the English past tense, e.g. And so we have always held that the Septuagint is the authoritative version of the Old Testament. Due to the fact that there were variances in the Hebrew texts, the textual tradition that the Septuagint translation presents often differs widely from the Masoretic Hebrew text of today. The Alexandrian Septuagint vs The Masoretic Text The synagogue system was birthed in Alexandria and the Jews needed a reliable translation of the Hebrew scriptures in Greek, as by now most Jewish people of the Diaspora only spoke in Koiné Greek during the Hellenistic Period. Another example is the text quoted in Hebrews 1:6 (And let all the angels of God worship him) which is nowhere to be found in the Masoretic text, but is found in both the Septuagint and the Dead Sea Scrolls Hebrew text in Deuteronomy 32:43. In the "Encyrlical of the Eastern Patriarchs" of 1848, which was a reply to the epistle of Pope Pius IX, "To The Easterns," the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, along with the other assembled bishops stated: "Our Church holds the infallible and genuine deposit of the Holy Scriptures: of the Old Testament a true and perfect version, of the New the divine original itself." I have weighed the value of both the Septuagint (LXX) and the Masoretic Text (MT) and have found not only the scholarly work and veracity of the MT to stand the test but also the archaeological evidence to verify the dating in the MT. Joseph Gleason, "The Septuagint," by Fr. (3) Instead of the Masoretic Text, the original Hebrew copies of the Scriptures would be better. The Septuagint is one of the most important assets that textual criticism has today. Second, some of the citations taken from the Old Testament and found in the New mainly use the Septuagint text. 34. The oldest more or less complete Septuagint manuscripts are Codex Vaticanus (4th century AD) and Codex Alexandrinus (5th century AD). The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. The books of Scripture found in the Septuagint, but not found in the Masoretic Text, are commonly called either the Deuterocanon or the anagignoskomena. Saints. Seraphim Slobodskoy, in his classic catechetical text, wrote: "...it is clear why the Church prefers the Septuagint and Peshitta translations for the authoritative text of the Old Testament, and principally the first, for the Septuagint text was produced under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit by the concerted effort of the Old Testament Church" (The Law of God: For Study at Home and School (Jordanville, NY: Holy Trinity Monastery, 1994) p. 440). The Jews were given charge of keeping and copying God’s word. The oldest extant Masoretic Text is from the late 9 th century. First of all, though the Greek text is not the original language of the Old Testament books, the Septuagint does reflect the state of the original text as it would have been found in the third to second centuries BCE, while the current Hebrew text of the Bible, which is called the "Masoretic," was edited up until the eighth century CE. The Septuagint is older than the Masoretic text, was the version of the Old Testament quoted in the New Testament and is accepted by the Church as its official version of the Old Testament. The End Time WAR on our Gospel and the clear message to this Generation . The New Testament quotes could not have come from the Masoretic text, because it did not exist at the time the New Testament was written; it would not be translated for … I've read that the Masoretic Text was brought to Ethiopia by the Apostles and that it has been perfectly preserved throughout history. The Masoretic text is a text that has not been preserved by the Church, and so while it is worthy of study and comparison, it is not equally trustworthy. [7] Travis Bohlinger, The Origin of the LXX, Logos Academic Blog. The Jews were given charge of keeping and copying God’s word. In any case, the differences, due to copying errors and slips of the pen, are quite minor and, … 568. It would seem that the Septuagint (LXX) translation is not only far more ancient than the Masoretic Text . This chart will show how Jesus Christ and the apostles quoted from the Greek Septuagint when they were quoting from the Old Testament. It is impossible for Shem to be Melchizedek using the Septuagint chronology because Shem dies 600 years before Abraham is born. And when that verse is translated back into Hebrew, it starts with the Hebrew letter נ (nun) which was missing from the Masoretic Text. Also, there are several sections of the Hebrew text that are simply unreadable without keeping one eye on the Hebrew text and one eye on the Septuagint. The following article was written in 1914, when St. Hilarion was an archimandrite and a professor of the Imperial Moscow Spiritual Academy. I have to generalize, mostly because I haven't studied the subject in quite a while, and I'm not familiar with a couple of the texts mentioned. A question about the accuracy of these texts sparks a quick recap of what these texts are.#TorahResource #Septuagint #MasoreticText For example, it is helpful to know that Hebrew does not have a past or future tense, but only a perfect and imperfect tense… and so just because an English translation is clearly in either the past, present, or future tense, it does not necessarily mean that this is what is implied by the Hebrew original. As for the Septuagint vrs. While it is outside the scope of this article to perform an in-depth study of the canon of Scripture, a few points relevant to the Masoretic Text should be made here: And Jonathan and Saul were taken, but the people escaped. in capital letters. Often this argument comes up from those holding to the Septuagint. Also called majuscules & uncials MS/ms A single uncial or cursive manuscript. Over time (before the first century), it came to include all of the books of the Old Testament, including the deuterocanonicals. 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