Scholars have been discussing this issue for millennia, but one aspect of this debate has garnered considerable attention in our circles recently: the Masoretic (MT) vs. Septuagint (LXX) debate. But if this guilt is in your people Israel, give Thummim." 2: And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. Septuagint: Masoretic: 1: In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth. The following article was written in 1914, when St. Hilarion was an archimandrite and a professor of the Imperial Moscow Spiritual Academy. I have to generalize, mostly because I haven't studied the subject in quite a while, and I'm not familiar with a couple of the texts mentioned. It is used by Jews everywhere. Yet the Septuagint (LXX) Greek translation of the Old Testament does include the missing verse. These are principle examples of why the Septuagint Old Testament is the ‘official’ Old Testament of the Orthodox Church (that and the fact that the Masoretic text didn’t even exist until 1,000 a.d.). (3) Instead of the Masoretic Text, the original Hebrew copies of the Scriptures would be better. It is a more faithful representation of the original Hebrew Scriptures. While it is outside the scope of this article to perform an in-depth study of the canon of Scripture, a few points relevant to the Masoretic Text should be made here: It is kind of like a “snapshot” of what the Hebrew text looked like over a thousand years before the Jews created the Masoretic Text. I've read that the Masoretic Text was brought to Ethiopia by the Apostles and that it has been perfectly preserved throughout history. That is why twice in the Old Testament they were instructed not … That the Septuagint is the most authoritative text in the Orthodox Church is something that is confirmed in just about any Orthodox catechetical text you could consult. The Septuagint versus the Masoretic The English version of the Septuagint text, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton compared to the English version of the Masoretic text in the King James translation the Septuagint is far more accurate as well. Messiah. Anyone considering the Septuagint as reliable is deluding himself (or herself). The Septuagint versus the Masoretic The English version of the Septuagint text, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton compared to the English version of the Masoretic text in the King James translation For example, it is helpful to know that Hebrew does not have a past or future tense, but only a perfect and imperfect tense… and so just because an English translation is clearly in either the past, present, or future tense, it does not necessarily mean that this is what is implied by the Hebrew original. ," the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, along with the other assembled bishops stated: "Our Church holds the infallible and genuine deposit of the Holy Scriptures: of the Old Testament a true and perfect version, of the New the divine original itself." In the “Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs” of 1848, which was a reply to the epistle of Pope Pius IX, “To The Easterns,” the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, along with the other assembled bishops stated: Also called minuscules MSS Greek MS of N.T. The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. The Masoretic text is a text that has not been preserved by the Church, and so while it is worthy of study and comparison, it is not equally trustworthy. The Masoretic text simply makes no sense, and obviously at some point a scribe skipped an entire line or two of the text. The earliest Septuagint manuscripts are from the 2nd century BC. I have to generalize, mostly because I haven't studied the subject in quite a while, and I'm not familiar with a couple of the texts mentioned. The Alexandrian Septuagint vs The Masoretic Text The synagogue system was birthed in Alexandria and the Jews needed a reliable translation of the Hebrew scriptures in Greek, as by now most Jewish people of the Diaspora only spoke in Koiné Greek during the Hellenistic Period. The rabbis who compiled the Masoretic text were not accountable to the High Priest in Jerusalem. For example, in Acts 7:43, the Protomartyr Stephen quotes from the book of Amos as follows: Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, figures which ye made to worship them (Acts 7:43 KJV). The New Testament quotes could not have come from the Masoretic text, because it did not exist at the time the New Testament was written; it would not be translated for … Due to the fact that there were variances in the Hebrew texts, the textual tradition that the Septuagint translation presents often differs widely from the Masoretic Hebrew text of today. This would make Jesus’ birth too early for him to be the Messiah, according to a certain type of chiliasm.5But the quote cannot be traced to an original so… Enjoy! In any case, the Hebrew Text that we now have was preserved outside the Church. Yet, modern Christian translations of the Old Testament rely on the Masoretic Text, not the Septuagint. This is where the name "Septuagint" came from and why the Roman numeral for 70 (LXX) is used as an abbreviation for the translation. Still, the Masoretic Text is generally considered to be a more reliable representation of the original Hebrew Scriptures than is the Greek Septuagint. If we are to say that the Bible has been inspired, we need to know what it contains. A close examination of the Septuagint and the Masoretic Text (the early Hebrew text of the Old Testament) show slight variations. © 1999-2018 OrthoChristian.comWhen reposting our material a link to OrthoChristian.com is required. This is obvious because of the reference to the Urim and Thummim, which were two objects used by the priest of the Old Testament for discerning the will of God on matters such as that described in 1 Samuel 14. It was compiled around 700 A.D. Original Hebrew," by Fr. What you can do, and what will be more helpful anyway, is when you are studying a particular passage in the Old Testament, look at the Masoretic, the DSS and the Septuagint and take every case one at a time. We have written in a previous article (“The Neutralization of the Netherworld”) that the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament represents an ancient and authentic Hebrew tradition. The missing verse reads, “The Lord is faithful in His words and holy in all His works. And Jonathan and Saul were taken, but the people escaped. One often encounters the use of the “prophetic perfect”, where a prophecy of something that has not yet come to pass is in the perfect tense, and so is often translated with the English past tense, e.g. The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. For example, you could look at the Masoretic, the Dead Sea Scroll and the Septuagint translation of Isaiah 7:14. The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. Over time (before the first century), it came to include all of the books of the Old Testament, including the deuterocanonicals. if so wouldnt that give credibility to the septuagint or its source given DDS are old (older than 2nd century)? a. Jews today believe that Shem is Melchizedek because the Masoretic chronology has Shem living down past the birth of Jacob. And so we have always held that the Septuagint is the authoritative version of the Old Testament. Cited from The Septuagint vs. the Masoretic Text by Fr. Early Age of Kings (Solomon to the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and the Babylonian captivity). The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. 34. Your leaders lead you astray, and the way of your paths they have destroyed. Several modern translations correct this clearly erroneous text based on the Septuagint and Vulgate to read: Therefore Saul said, "O LORD God of Israel, why have you not answered your servant this day? In Is the Septuagint a superior text for the Genesis genealogies?, we pointed out that Smith used a forged quote from Ephraem the Syrian (AD 306–373), which claims the Jews altered the biblical text by reducing the timespan covered by the chronogenealogies in Genesis 5 and 11. 2) is that true christians evangelist from nt quoted the greek version using Virgin in matthew 7:14 Validity of LXX. jodav. The Hebrew Masoretic Text and the Greek Septuagint. Fr. by Gabe Martini, "Masoretic Text vs. The Septuagint is one of the most important assets that textual criticism has today. John Whiteford. The authority of the Septuagint is based on three factors. Often this argument comes up from those holding to the Septuagint. Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Raephan, the images of them which ye made for yourselves (Sir Lancelot Brenton translation of the Septuagint). It is impossible for Shem to be Melchizedek using the Septuagint chronology because Shem dies 600 years before Abraham is born. And what it corrects in the Masoretic Text demonstrates that the MT was altered by anti-Christian rabbis in the first and second centuries A.D. Septuagint: Part 2. It is impossible for Shem to be Melchizedek using the Septuagint chronology because Shem dies 600 years before Abraham is born. dead sea scrolls and septuagint vs masoretic text . Several editions existed, varying considerably, but the received and authoritative text is that of Jacob ben-chayim ibn Adonijah, who carefully sifted and arranged the previous works on the subject. Another example is the text quoted in Hebrews 1:6 (And let all the angels of God worship him) which is nowhere to be found in the Masoretic text, but is found in both the Septuagint and the Dead Sea Scrolls Hebrew text in Deuteronomy 32:43. Second, some of the citations taken from the Old Testament and found in the New mainly use the Septuagint text. A question about the accuracy of these texts sparks a quick recap of what these texts are.#TorahResource #Septuagint #MasoreticText The Septuagint is based upon Hebrew texts at least twelve centuries older than the texts upon which the Masoretic version is based. It should be pointed out that the Hebrew text … The oldest extant Masoretic Text is from the late 9 th century. Because the LXX is supposedly 1,100 plus years older and as it reads very different from the oldest extant Hebrew manuscripts, text critics presume that the LXX was translated from an older more reliable Hebrew text. 2: But the earth was unsightly and unfurnished, and darkness was over the deep, and the Spirit of God moved over the water. The Septuagint is older than the Masoretic text, was the version of the Old Testament quoted in the New Testament and is accepted by the Church as its official version of the Old Testament. At any rate, the Hebrew Tanakh/Masoretic text at Isaiah 9:6 [9:5] is different from the much earlier Hebrew text of the Dead Sea Scrolls as well as different from the earlier Septuagint's Greek translation of the Hebrew text. In the early 20th century, the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in caves near Qumran. Test case for accuracy of LXX vs. Masoretic: Shem as Melchizedek. The oldest more or less complete Septuagint manuscripts are Codex Vaticanus (4th century AD) and Codex Alexandrinus (5th century AD). Particularly when the Septuagint and the Hebrew text are in agreement, we will better understand the Septuagint as a translation if we compare it with the Hebrew text that it is clearly a translation of. New Hieromartyr Hilarion (Troitsky), Archbishop of Verey. It would seem that the Septuagint (LXX) translation is not only far more ancient than the Masoretic Text . ...the basis of the Old Testament text in the Orthodox tradition is the Septuagint, a Greek translation by the "seventy interpreters" made in the third to second centuries BCE for the Alexandrian Hebrews and the Jewish diaspora. The Masoretic text is a text that has not been preserved by the Church, and so while it is worthy of study and comparison, it is not equally trustworthy. The earliest copies we have of the MT only Date from about 900 or 1000 AD, but the LXX goes … That the Septuagint is the most authoritative text in the Orthodox Church is something that is confirmed in just about any Orthodox catechetical text you could consult. order to arrive at the original text. Its message is especially pertinent for our times, when there is widespread confusion and ignorance about the true nature of Christ’s Church and about the right approach to Holy Scripture. The Masoretic Text is the Hebrew text of the Old Testament used for our modern translations. The Septuagint predates the earliest Masoretic text by centuries. It is called the Masoretic text. In comparison to the textual evidence that we have for the New Testament Greek text, this is a very late manuscript. According to the relevant research the excessive text of the MT version is due to additions of several stereotypical and conventional expressions, finally damaging the original form of the prophecies that is full of meaning and superbly measured. That is why twice in the Old Testament they were instructed not … For example, if you look at the footnotes for the book of Habbakuk in the NRSV there are 5 places in which it states that the Hebrew text is uncertain, and 3 times in which they state that they are simply translating from the Septuagint, Peshitta, and/or the Vulgate, because the Hebrew text is so unclear. The Masoretic text is a text that has not been preserved by the Church, and so while it is worthy of study and comparison, it is not equally trustworthy. The books of Scripture found in the Septuagint, but not found in the Masoretic Text, are commonly called either the Deuterocanon or the anagignoskomena. The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. Often this argument comes up from those holding to the Septuagint. The Hebrew Text that has served as the basis for most translations of the Old Testament into English is based almost entirely on the Leningrad Codex, which dates from 1008 A.D. The Septuagint Preserved Something The Masoretic Text Lost! However, since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, we now know that the Septuagint is based on a different, and older Hebrew text than the Masoretic text. In bibles, the Old Testament is translated from the Masoretic text, from 1000 A.D. That the Septuagint is the most authoritative text in the Orthodox Church is something that is confirmed in just about any Orthodox catechetical text you could consult. Designed by John A. Peck, The Online Orthodox Christian Homiletics Resource, Sinners in the Hand of a 'Less Angry' God, A Pagan Records the Slaughter of the Innocents by Herod, The Apostle John and the First Letter of Clement to the Corinthians, Nothing Strikes Fear in the Person Whose Hope is in God, Marriage Perfection to Rival the Holiest of Monks, The Compilers of the Philokalia Answer the Opponents of Frequent Communion, The “Smoking Gun” of Non-Chalcedonian Christianity, Salvation of Christians Outside the Orthodox Church, Augustine: Infant Baptism Is The Apostolic And Universal Practice Of The Church, Calvin Knew Infant Baptism Was Apostolic in Origin. The Septuagint is one of the most important assets that textual criticism has today. John Whiteford talks about the "Bible according to the Seventy". We have the promise that the Holy Spirit will guide us into all Truth (John 16:13), and so can indeed affirm that The Masoretic Text (MT) is the main Hebrew edition of the Old Testament. I have weighed the value of both the Septuagint (LXX) and the Masoretic Text (MT) and have found not only the scholarly work and veracity of the MT to stand the test but also the archaeological evidence to verify the dating in the MT. The Masoretic text is a text that has not been preserved by the Church, and so while it is worthy of study and comparison, it is not equally trustworthy. The Septuagint, the Masoretic Text, & Matthew 1 Exploring Jeremy Sexton’s and Henry Smith’s Rabbinic Forgeries Hypothesis How many of you are familiar with the claim that Jewish Rabbinic scholars forged Biblical history to obfuscate the identity of Yeshua (Jesus) as the Bible’s Messiah? The Septuagint and Peshitta texts were preserved within the Church, and so the Church believes that the text of the Old Testament was been authoritatively preserved in these textual traditions. This verse can be found in the Orthodox Study Bible, which relies on the Septuagint.But this verse is absent from the King James Version (KJV), the New King James Version(NKJV), the Complete Jewish Bible, and every other translation which is based on the Masoretic Text. There never was one textus recepticus, but the consensus within the Jewish community was entirely in favour of the Septuagint until it became clear that many of its readings pointed too clearly to Christ. b. The Septuagint, the translation of the seventy, was an official document. Another example of a clearly corrupt reading in the Masoretic text is 1 Sameule 14:41, which reads as follows: Therefore Saul said unto the LORD God of Israel, "Give Thummim". This chart will show how Jesus Christ and the apostles quoted from the Greek Septuagint when they were quoting from the Old Testament. If this guilt is in me or in Jonathan my son, O LORD, God of Israel, give Urim. The Religious A priori. It should be pointed out that the Hebrew text should not be ignored entirely. I see no reason why Bibles shouldn't be translated from either of these two ancient Jewish text types. The Jews were given charge of keeping and copying God’s word. A Hebrew Bible exists today. The Septuagint predates the first appearance of the Masoretic text by almost ten centuries. Septuagint - Is it a Reliable Translation? . 1: In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. The three are the Hebrew Masoretic Text, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and the Septuagint. . "Is the Septuagint a Divinely Inspired Translation?" If so, why? Saints. Since the Septuagint is a translation, scholars speculate if it accurately reflects the Hebrew scriptures of the 2nd century BC. The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. As for why the Septuagint is good, one reason that this translation is helpful is that it is a translation from Hebrew made in about 250 BC. Does the Orthodox Church teach that the Septuagint is more reliable than the Hebrew text of the Old Testament? This simply cannot be demonstrated from the facts." Asceties of Piety. …with His stripes, we were healed (Isaiah 53:5), when from the perspective of the prophet, he was speaking of something in the future. Andrew Phillips. And Saul and Jonathan were taken: but the people escaped. “[The Septuagint] was translated from Hebrew over several centuries, and the translations began to be revised shortly after they were completed. by Fr. The Septuagint (for example in the Alexandrinus or Vaticanus texts) is older than the Masoretic. the Masoretic Text, I'm personally pro-Septuagint but also pro-ancient Hebrew texts (which the MT is clearly not), which typically agree with the Septuagint anyway. Isaiah 3:12 Masoretic As for My people, their rulers are mockers, and women govern(or rule) them; O My people! [7] Travis Bohlinger, The Origin of the LXX, Logos Academic Blog. The Jews were given charge of keeping and copying God’s word. More specifically, the current discussion is over the respective chronologies found in those two manuscrip… Post May 15, 2013 #1 2013-05-15T23:08. is it true that the dead sea scrolls agrees in many places with the septuagint, not with masoretic text? I've gained interest in the Septuagint/LXX translation of the Old Testament ever since I read quite a few Orthodox sources say that it's "the Orthodox Old Testament", and such arguments as "Christ and the Apostles used the LXX, so we should too". Fr. It can provide invaluable help to Orthodox Christians in understanding their Faith more deeply, and in defending and giving an account of it when confronted with heterodox — especially Protestant — claims. The Septuagint version of Jeremiah is about 1/8 (about 2700 words) shorter than the Masoretic. In Romans 3:1 & 2, God’s word tells us that the Jews were committed to the oracles of God. The Jewish Septuagint translation of the Old Testament predates the Masoretic which we Protestants use by approximately 1,000 years. The Septuagint predates the earliest Masoretic text by centuries. There was a time when many Protestant scholars assumed that the Septuagint was an often loose translation of the Hebrew text, and that when it differed from the Masoretic Text, it was due to changes made by the translators. 568. It is an example of the Masoretic recension, which is usually dated to have been shaped between the 6th and 10th centuries A.D. The Septuagint vs the Masoretic Text? The Masoretic text and the Septuagint both link all the key male players, but the Septuagint gives longer time frames for many of them. Third, the Septuagint was used by both the Greek Fathers of the Church, and Orthodox liturgical services (in other words, this text became part of the Orthodox church Tradition). Also called majuscules & uncials MS/ms A single uncial or cursive manuscript. Perhaps that is why Jesus and the apostles frequently quoted from the Septuagint… Septuagint (LXX) text vs. Masoretic (MT) text Old Testament – know your Bible! In any case, the differences, due to copying errors and slips of the pen, are quite minor and, … In Romans 3:1 & 2, God’s word tells us that the Jews were committed to the oracles of God. And in the above quote, I think there may be a translation problem, though I don't have the Russian text, and my Russian would probably be too limited to tell for sure by myself -- but when it says "some of the citations taken from the Old Testament and found in the New mainly use the Septuagint text," it is awkwardly worded enough for me to guess that Metropolitan Hilarion meant to say that most (not just "some") of the quotes of the Old Testament in the New Testament are based on the Septuagint... because as a matter of fact, that is true. jodav. According to Christian tradition, the non-Christian Jews began making changes in the Old Testament text to undercut the Christian use of Old Testament prophecies concerning the coming of Christ. a. Jews today believe that Shem is Melchizedek because the Masoretic chronology has Shem living down past the birth of Jacob. Why Orthodox Christians Prefer the Septuagint: Part 2. It is almost one thousand years newer than the Septuagint. 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